The following timeline that displays the history of concrete was created by Professor Michael Hein of Auburn University:


12,000,000 BC
Concrete itself is actually a phenomenon of nature. Discovered in Israel, natural deposits of cement compounds were said to have formed due to reactions between limestone and oil shale, employing spontaneous combustion.
6500 BC
A form of concrete dating to 6500 B.C. was discovered by archaeologists in Syria. The Image is “One of the dead towns in northern Syria.”
Dead town in Syria
5600 BC
The earliest concrete yet discovered in Europe was developed along the Danube River in Yugoslavia. Stone age hunters /fishermen mixed red lime, sand, gravel and water to construct floors for their huts.
3000 BC 
Chinese used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall. The Chinese used concrete in Gansu Province in northwest china. “It was greenish-black in color, it was used for floors and contained a cement mixed with sand, broken pottery, bones and water.”
2500 BC
Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to bind dried bricks. Also furthered the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building the Pyramids.
800 BC
The Babylonians and Assyrians used a bitumen to bind stone and bricks. This allowed them to combine both large and small stone objects together.
600 BC
In 600  B.C., “The Greeks discovered a natural pozzolan on Santorini Island that developed hydraulic properties when mixed with lime. This made it possible to produce concrete that would harden under water, as well as in the air.”
400 BC -200 AD
Petra (Greek, “city of rock”), ancient city of Arabia, is in what is now southwestern Jordan. The stronghold and treasure city of the Nabataeans, an Arab people, Petra is referred to as Sela in the Bible (see 2 Kings 14:7).
300 BC
Romans used slaked lime a volcanic ash called pozzuolana, found near Pozzouli by the bay of  Naples. They used lime as a cementitious material. Pliny reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported a 2 parts pozzuolana to 1 part lime. Animal fat, milk, and blood were used as admixtures.
193 BC
Porticus Aemelia is made of bound stones to form concrete.
Porticus  Aemelia
75 BC
Romans use a pozzolanic, hydraulic cement to build the  theater at Pompeii and the Roman baths. The cement was a ground mix of lime and a volcanic ash containing silica and alumina. This volcanic material was discovered near Pozzouli, Italy, hence the name pozzolanic cement.
44 BC
The Palatine Hill (LatinPalatium) is the centermost of theseven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of RomeItaly. It is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus.
25 BC
An ancient harbor at Caesarea, Israel was commissioned and built by Herod the Great. Built using hydraulic concrete to construct breakwaters. Caesarea is located half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa along the Mediterranean in Israel.
79 AD
Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in theItalian region of Campania, in the territory of the commune of Pompeii. It was destroyed and completely buried during a catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius on 24 August 79 AD.
80 AD
Roman Army engineers built Aqueducts to serve many of the major cities of the empire. Shown here is a part of the original 56 mile aqueduct between Eiffel and Cologne built by the Romans in 80 AD. The inside measurements of this section are 44 inches high and 30 inches wide, with  approximately 15-inch walls.
82 AD
The Colosseum is completed using large amounts of Roman concrete.
128 AD
The Pantheon is completed. This 142 ft. diameter unreinforced concrete dome remained the largest spanning dome until it was surpassed in 1913. It is made of aggregates that vary in density from basalt in the foundations, through brick and volcanic tuff in the upper walls, to the lightest of pumice at the top.
After 400 AD
The art of concrete was lost after the fall of the Roman Empire. Most concrete construction for next 1300 years used lime based mortars and concretes.
Saxons built concrete mixers in the form of shallow bowls cast into bedrock. A beam fixed with paddles rotated  about a central post hole that was human or animal powered.
Saxon Mixers
Joseph Moxon wrote about a hidden fire in heated lime that appears upon the addition of water.
John Smeaton, British Engineer, rediscovered hydraulic cement through repeated testing of mortar in both fresh and salt water. He discovered that cement would harden under  water if it was produced from limestone that contained a large amount of clay. Smeaton “made a real break-through when he combined burnt Aberthaw blue lias, a limestone from South Wales, and an Italian pozzolan from Civitavecchia. With this combination Smeaton produced the first high-quality cement since the fall of the Roman  Empire.”
John Smeaton found that the calcinations of limestone containing clay gave a lime which hardened under water (hydraulic lime). He used hydraulic lime to rebuild Eddystone Lighthouse in Cornwall, England, which he had been commissioned to build in 1756, but had to first invent a material that would not be affected by water. He wrote a book about his work.
1779 – 1780
Bry Higgins was issued a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) for exterior plastering use. He published many different observations and results from his experiments. He had a view of improving the way people composed and applied calcerous cements and of preparing quicklime.
James Parker from England patented a natural hydraulic cement by calcining nodules of impure limestone containing clay, called Parker’s Cement or Roman Cement.
1812 – 1813
Louis Vicat of France prepared artificial hydraulic lime by calcining synthetic mixtures of limestone and clay.
Maurice St. Leger is issued patents for hydraulic cement.
Canvass White, an American Engineer, found rock deposits in Madison County, New York that made hydraulic cement with little processing.
James Frost of England prepared artificial hydraulic lime like Vicat’s and called it British Cement.
Joseph Aspdin, a bricklayer and mason in Leeds, England, patented what he called portland cement, since it  resembled the stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British coast. Aspdin’s method in producing portland cement involved burning a mixture of crushed limestone and clay into clinker, then pulverizing it into powdered cement.
Erie Canal created the first great demand for cement in the United States. The construction used cement made from “hydraulic lime” found in New York’s Madison, Cayuga, and Onondaga counties.
Erie Canal
I. K. Brunel is credited with the first engineering application of portland cement, which was used to fill a breach in the Thames Tunnel.
Jean-Louis Lambot was the first to use reinforcing in concrete. He constructed several small rowboats  of concrete, which he reinforced with iron bars and wire mesh.
The first concrete roads appeared in Austria. Then in England in 1865, followed by other Continental countries and the United States.
William B. Wilkinson, an English plasterer, erected a small reinforced concrete two-story servant’s cottage. He reinforced the concrete floor and roof with iron bars and wire rope. This is credited as the first reinforced concrete building.
1859 – 1867
Portland cement is used in the construction of the London sewer system.
Lehigh County resident David O. Saylor led three partners to found the Coplay Cement Company to produce natural hydraulic cement.
Joseph Monier, a French gardener, patented a design for reinforced garden tubs. He later patented a design for reinforced concrete posts and beams for railway and road guardrails.
The first recorded shipment of portland cement to the US.
1850 – 1880
Francois Coignet, a French builder, is responsible for the first widespread use of concrete in construction.
David O. Saylor established the first portland-cement plant in the United States in Coplay, Pennsylvania.
1871 – 1875
William E. Ward builds the first landmark building in reinforced concrete in Port Chester, New York, designed by Architect Robert Mook.
First reinforced Concrete landmark Building
Earnest L. Ransom patented a reinforcing system using twisted square rods to help the development of bond between concrete and reinforcing.
F. Ransome patented a slightly tilted horizontal kiln which could be rotated so the material moved gradually from one end to the other.
Henri Le Chatelier of France established oxide ratios to prepare the proper amount of lime to produce portland cement. He named the components: Alite (tricalcium silicate), Belite (dicalcium silicate), and Celite (tetracalcium aluminoferrite). He proposed that hardening is caused by the formation of crystalline products of the reaction between cement and water.
Gyozo Mihailich designed the first reinforced concrete arch bridge. The bridge consisting of two spans of 5 m each, was built in the village of Solt, Hungary.
The addition of gypsum when grinding clinker to act as a retardant to the setting of concrete was introduced in the United States. Gypsum, calcium sulfate dihydrate, retards the curing process before the cement is packaged and shipped. Only a small amount is needed.
George Bartholomew placed the first concrete street in the United States in Bellefontaine, Ohio, which still exists.
Francois Hennebique patented a reinforced concrete building system used in the home at right. Note the two intersecting cantilevers carry weight of 200 ton tower. Hennebique was responsible for the widespread  acceptance of reinforced concrete.
Robert Maillart builds Stauffacher Bridge in Zurich.
Sears Roebuck offered a barrel of “Cement, natural” at $1.25 per barrel; they also listed “Portland cement, imported” at $3.40 per 50 gallon barrel.
Arthur Henry Symons designed a column clamp to be used with job-built concrete forms.
column clamp
Thomas Edison was a  pioneer in the further development of the rotary kiln.
August Perret designed and built the 25 Rue Franklinapartment building in Paris that used what he called “The  Trabeated System of Reinforced Concrete.” This system was studied and used often influencing architecture and concrete construction for decades.
August Perret builds the Theatre Champs Elysee in Paris.
The Ingalls building was the first concrete skyscraper.  Constructed in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1904, it made use of the Ransome system of reinforcement.
In 1904, precast concrete was used in two projects in Sydney Harbor, Bradley’s Head Lighthouse and Millers Point Wharves. A Brief History of Precast Concrete can be found at: History.htm
Frank Lloyd Wright begins construction on the famous Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois. Taking 3 years to complete, Wright designed the massive structure with 4 identical sides so that his expensive formwork could be used multiple times.
Unity Temple
As the concrete industry begins its boom a group at the concrete convention in Indianapolis sees a need for a group to oversee the industry. The National Association of Cement Users is formed, which will later be renamed the American Concrete Institute. The groups’ objective is to promote knowledge of the art of cement, while promoting efficiency through teaching and research.
J. H. Chubb of the Universal Portland Cement Company introduced the exposed aggregate method of concrete surfacing. He washed the concrete before it set with dilute acid. This was an innovative step in aesthetic uses for concrete.
Thomas Alva Edison patents a system of cast-iron molds for a monolithic concrete house that forms walls, floors, stairways, roof, bath and laundry tubs, and conduits for electric and water service in one single casting operation.
monolithic concrete house
1910 – 1918
A Norwegian civil engineer named Fougner thought of using concrete to build ships. It wasn’t until 1917, when wartime steel shortages required the use of cement for construction that Fougner’s idea was used. In 1918, a Concrete Ship, the Atlantus was commissioned. The Concrete Ship
With the invention of “Shotcrete” came the ability to place concrete in vertical or horizontal surfaces without formwork. This process has paved the way for easier placement procedures and for an alternative repair method.
The first patent for a concrete pump was filed. This made concrete transportation easy and allowed on site mixing.
The Panama Canal is opened after decades of Construction. It features 3 pairs of concrete locks with floors as thick as 20 feet and walls as thick as 60 feet at the bottom. 
Portland Cement Association founded in 1916.
Eugene Freyssinet builds Airship Hangers at Orly.
The US Bureau of Standards and the American Society for Testing Materials established a standard formula for portland cement.
Mies van der Rohe proposes concrete high-rises.
A 230 foot Medical Arts building, built in Dallas, Texas is the tallest concrete building to date.
Auguste Perret builds Notre Dame du Raincy in Raincy, France.
Eugene Freyssinet successfully develops pre-stressed concrete.
Salginatobel Bridge by Robert Maillart (1872-1940) is built near Shears, Switzerland. This hollow box, three-hinged arch is Maillart’s most famous work. It’s 90 meter span is the longest of his bridges. Maillart won the design-construction contract by submitting the lowest bid of 18 other designs.
Air entraining agents were introduced to improve concrete resilience to freeze/thaw.
US substituted concrete for limestone during federal building projects of the Great Depression. Limestone was also used extensively for pavements, roadbeds, bridge approaches, dams, and sport facilities (stadiums, swimming pools, tennis courts, playgrounds).
Le Corbusier builds Villa Savoye 
Pier Luigi Nervi (1891-1972) builds the Florence Stadium in Florence, Italy.

Eduardo Torroja builds Algeciras Market Hall in Madrid, Spain.
Schwandbach Bridge by Robert Maillart (1872-1940) near Hinterfultigen, Switzerland is the best known of Maillart’s deck-stiffened arch bridges. “It’s very thin arch is stiffened by the horizontally curved roadway and the two parts are integrated by vertical trapezoidal cross walls.” The Tower and the BridgeDavid Billington.
Pier Luigi Nervi built the Orvieto Aircraft Hangers for the Italian Air Force using thin shell construction.
Eduardo Torroja, the Spanish Engineer, designed a cantilevered thin shell roof at the Madrid Hippodrome.
The first major concrete dams, the Hoover Dam and the Grand Coulee Dam, were built. The horizontal arch design of the Hoover Dam ensures that the great compression strength of concrete is employed. The immense force of Lake Mead’s waters wedge the dam into the mountain creating a very strong structure.
Frank Lloyd Wright was the one of the first to exploit the cantilever at Fallingwater.
Portland Cement Laboratories perfect air-entrained concrete.
Germany, Japan, and other countries devastated during WWII saw a need for the recycling of concrete in order to clean up the streets and build new structures.
Frank Lloyd Wright builds on Meis’ ideas at the Johnson Wax Tower in Racine, Wisconsin.
Pier Luigi Nervi (1891-1972) builds the Turin Exhibition Hall in Turin, Italy.
Frank Lloyd Wright builds the Guggenheim museum in New York City out of reinforced concrete.

Pier Luigi Nervi, Little Sports Palace, Rome.
Le Corbusier builds Ronchamp.
1958 Felix Candela, the master of the concrete shell, builds the restaurant at Xochimilco. The extreme thinness of 1-5/8″ is expressed in 140 ft. ground plan diameter roof constructed from eight intersecting hyperbolic parabolic vaults.
Palazzetto Dello Sport, designed by Pier Luigi Nervi (1891-1972), is located in Rome, Italy. It consists of a 197 foot span dome with two sets of intersecting ribs for lightness.
Le Corbusier builds La Tourette.
La Tourette
1959 – 1963
Construction of the Sydney Opera House. Stage 1-   Foundations and base to the podium level.
Le Corbusier builds the government complex at Chandigarh, India.
Bertrand Goldberg’s twin towers at Marina City marked the beginning of the use of reinforced concrete in modern skyscrapers and set the height record at 588 feet.
Construction of the Sydney Opera House. Stage 2  –  Construction of the Roof Vaults.
The use of concrete in the Dulles International Airport and the TWA terminal at Kennedy Int’l Airport placed Eero Saarinen among one of the pioneers in concrete design.
Dulles International Airport
1000 Lake Shore Drive beats Marina City at 640 ft. 6000 psi concrete in the lower columns was used for the first time.
Place Victoria, located in Montreal, Canada, is 624 feet tall with 6000 psi of concrete in the columns.
1967 – 1973
Completion of the Sydney Opera House. Stage 3 – Glass walls, interiors, promenade and approaches.
The first concrete domed sport structure, Assembly Hall, was constructed at the University of Illinois in Champagin-Urbana.
Lake Point Towers, located in Chicago, Illinois, is 70 stories and 645 feet tall with 7500 psi of concrete.
One Shell Plaza, located in Houston, Texas, is 714 feet tall with 6000 psi of concrete.
Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced.
Heinz Isler, Switzerland
Brion-Vega Cemetery, Vito d’Altvole, Italy. Designed by architect Carlo Scarpa to be a place of meditation and peace. His skillful detailing of concrete and steel allow for a beautiful play of light across walls and through windows; creating a landscape of poetic beauty.

Christian Menn, Felsenau Bridge, Bern, Switzerland.
The Water Tower Place in Chicago, Illinois is 859 feet tall and required 9000psi of concrete using super plasticizers in order to be constructed.
CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Worlds tallest free standing structure on land at 1815 ft. Made of Concrete.

Christian Menn, Ganter Bridge, Brig, Switzerland.
Architect David Hertz develops Syndecrete (TM).
Developed as an alternative to limited or nonrenewable natural materials, Syndecrete is a lightweight, architectural concrete composite made primarily of cement, western coal fly ash (a waste product from coal-fired power plants), and waste polypropylene fiber from a carpet manufacturing plant (to provide reinforcing). It is used in many applications such as: kitchen countertops, sinks, tub surrounds, tile flooring, and furniture.
Silica fume was introduced as a pozzolanic additive/admixture. The “highest strength” concrete was used in building the Union Plaza constructed in Seattle, Washington. Silica fume, also known as micro silica, is a powder that is approximately 100 times finer than Portland cement. When added to concrete mix, it produces extremely high strength concrete that also has a very low permeability.
The Sunshine Skyway bridge in Tampa, Florida won the prestigious Presidential Design Award from the National Endowment for the Arts. Painted yellow to contrast with its marine surroundings, the Sunshine Skyway is one of the first cable-stayed bridges to attach cables to the center of its roadway as opposed to the outer edges, allowing commuters an unobstructed view of the magnificent bay.
The 907 foot Scotia Plaza Building located in Toronto, Canada.
One of the world’s most infamous concrete structures, the Berlin wall fell symbolizing the fall of communism in East Germany. The wall was made of 15 foot high panels laced with barbed wire and was over 75 miles long.
311 South Wacker Drive and Two Prudential Plaza in Chicago sets new height record at 920 ft.
Homes are now being built out of concrete using Insulating Concrete Form (ICF). Styrofoam blocks are built up and poured full of concrete to create a house that is relatively maintenance free. Due to the high density of concrete with the added layer of foam these new homes have a great insulating system and less sound is transmitted through the concrete walls than through conventional stud walls.  
Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lampur, Malasia, 1476 ft. Visit the Petronas Web Site.
Portland Cement Association said at least 104 million tons of concrete was recycled in 1997 in the United States. Late twentieth century sees the development of mobile concrete recycling machines.
As part of the seismic retrofit design of the Richmond – San Rafael Bridge, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. developed a concept of using precast concrete jackets to strengthen the existing concrete piers. Unlike steel jackets, concrete jackets can be designed to resist corrosion in the aggressive tidal-splash zone for the remaining 100-year life expectancy of the bridge.
Christian Menn, Sunniberg Bridge, Klosters, Switzerland.
The Big Dig, Boston 10-lane asymmetrical bridge that spans the Boston skyline. At 185 feet it is the largest cable-stayed bridge and the  first of its kind in the US. It also has a precast tunnel system that will serve as Boston’s artery connecting downtown to the airport.
The Oresund Fixed Link connects Denmark and Sweden.  Consisting of four separate structures; the world’s longest combined railway and motorway tunnel, more than 4 kilometers long; a 7.8 kilometer bridge with a cable stayed section as its centerpiece, and an artificial island 4 kilometers long in the middle of the straight where the bridge and the tunnel meet. The entire structure was prefabricated on the mainland and floated out to the construction site in pieces. The pieces were then snapped together like Legos to complete both the bridge and the tunnel.
The world's longest combined railway and motorway tunnel
Rohner Office Building, Fussach, Austria
Private Chapel in Valleaceron, Almaden, Ciudad Real, Spain
M-House, Michael Jantzen, Gorman, California
The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth’s building was designed by the Japanese architect Tadao Ando.
San Francisco based engineering firm URS Corp. is set to design 17th Street bridge over the downtown connector. The bridge will use innovative techniques in both steel and concrete design. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Auditorio De Tenerife, Santiago Calatrava, Canary Islands, Spain
Christian Menn, Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, Boston.
Jubilee Church, Richard Meier, Rome, Italy
Milau Viaduct. Tallest concrete bridge piers in the world at 200m (650 ft.).
China’s Three Gorges Dam


References:-R.E. Schaeffer, Reinforced Concrete, Preliminary design for  Architects and Builders; 1992 McGraw-Hilll-Handout on Skyscrapers, World Book Encyclopedia-World Wide Web page: The Portland Cement  Association Online://, Richard W., “The History of  Concrete,” Concrete Journal, July 1995, Publication# J950584.-Billington, David P., The Tower and the Bridge, 1985, Princeton University Press-Wikipedia